In modern urban language one can hear a variety of terms describing persons with odd behavior. “Geek,” “nerd,” and ”dork” are such terms. They rarely can be used interchangeably because there are distinguishing features of an individual each of these terms usually refers to. We will explore the differences between the three in the following article.
The word geek is thought to be a variant of the Scottish word geck, which simply means “a fool.” Today, geeks are rarely thought to be complete fools, they are rather part-fools and part-high intelligence. In modern urban language, “geek” refers to a person who has intense interests and encyclopedic knowledge in special areas that hardly correspond to modern life. These areas usually include science fiction, computer software and hardware (often obsolete or non-practical), obscure supernatural disciplines, gaming, sports, et cetera. Many people do not realize they are geeks, as they view their interests as organic and simply never put them under question in the course of their lives.
There is a special term “geek chic” which refers to a fashion trend that appeared in the mid-2000s and describes young persons who adopted stereotypical “geeky” features, such as oversized black horn- rimmed glasses and suspenders.
Examples of geeks as portrayed in the popular American cinema and literature:
- Nero, a hacker played by Keanu Reeves in a movie “The Matrix” (1999, directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski).
- Action figure-collecting geek Andy Stitzer played by Steve Carell in a movie “The 40-Year-Old Virgin” (2005, directed by Jadd Apatow).
- A pair of high school misfits and computer prodigies (played by Anthony Michael Hall and Ilan Mitchell-Smith) in a movie “Weird Science” (1985, directed by John Hughes).
- Henry Dorsett Case, a low-level hustler and a talented hacker in “The Neuromancer,” (1984) – a seminal novel in the cyberpunk subgenre of science fiction, written by William Gibson. Most novels in this subgenre include some sort of a geek as a protagonist.
In general, nerd refers to an academically inclined person, who is over obsessive with his interests. There are as many types of nerds as there are academic disciplines.
A word “nerd” was first documented in Dr. Seuss’ book “If I Ran a Zoo” (1950) but there is no clear understanding of where exactly the term “nerd” in its modern application comes from. Some think that it is an alteration of the 1940s term nert (meaning “stupid or crazy person”).
Examples of nerds as portrayed in popular American cinema and literature:
- Marc Zuckerberg, the future CEO at Facebook (played by Jesse Eisenberg in the movie “Social Network” directed by David Fincher).
- Steve Jobs, the late CEO at Apple (played by Noah Wyle in the movie “Pirates of Silicon Valley” in 1999 directed by Martyn Burke, and more recently played by Michael Fassbender in the movie “Steve Jobs” directed by Danny Boyle in 2015).
- Awkward scientist Julius F. Kelp, played by Jerry Lewis in a movie he directed himself, “Nutty Professor” (1963).
- An unbalanced mathematician Maximillian Cohen, played by Sean Gullette in the movie “Pi” (1998, directed by Darren Aranofsky).
A “dork” is a descriptive term almost exclusively used pejoratively. It means a socially and otherwise inept person with seemingly odd interests. A word “dork” literally signifies “whale’s penis.” Dorks are complete outcasts; they are often bullied in school because of their inept social behavior and appearance, and ultimately may be forced to exclude themselves from any sort of social life whatsoever. A reason dorks are viewed as victims, in the first place, is that they have interests and a means of expressing them that people around cannot share. Dorks want to have a social circle around that would appreciate them, but are unable to find people like them. People with Asperger’s syndrome are often stigmatized as dorks, as they cannot read social signs properly and cannot understand why everybody seems to be evading or even bullying them.
Examples of characters with typical dorks’ traits as portrayed in popular American cinema and literature:
- Holden Caulfield, the protagonist of J.D. Salinger’s best-selling novel “The Catcher in the Rye.”(1951)
- Benjamin “Benjy” Compson, a mentally deranged teenager in William Faulkner’s novel “The Sound and the Fury.” (1929.)
- Autistic hero Raymond Babbitt (played by Dustin Hoffman) in the movie “Rain Man” (1988, directed by Barry Levenson).
- The troubled teenager Donnie Darko (played by Jake Gyllenhall) in the movie “Donnie Darko” (2001, directed by Richard Kelly).
|Are social, tend to be drawn to people who share their interests||Non-social or antisocial, introverted||Are not social or are socially awkward|
|Preference for obscure references and facts, slang and abbreviations||Preference for obscure terminology and concepts, long formulas and scientific lingo||Are not talkative|
|Are interested in micro details of daily life; interests are more general, sometimes they are interested in everything||Are interested in macro details and have a tendency to look into the future; interests and intelligence are focused on a specific topic||Extremely introverted and not interested in any details; sometimes have odd interests|
|Often work in IT departments, design departments, game industry, et al.||Often work in research institutes, analyst centers, as engineers, et al.||Often work in IT departments, libraries and places where only a little social contact needed|
|Corresponding personality traits and/ or medical disorders: obsessive-compulsive, ADHD, video game addiction||Corresponding personality traits and/ or medical disorders : obsessive-compulsive, narcissistic, sociopathic, schizopathic||Corresponding personality traits and/ or medical disorders: Asperger’s, borderline, social anxiety, maladaptive daydreaming|
In terms of social skills, the three groups differ significantly. Geeks are the most social among the three. Although they can be perceived as annoying and excessively indulgent in respect to conversations about their subject of interest, they are able to maintain many social contacts because of their interest in details of almost everything, apart from their main point. Still, geeks are at their social best when they meet people of the same geeky interests. Nerds, on the other hand, tend to be willingly withdrawn from society and even, unlike geeks, from like-minded people. Nerds are loners and mad professors of their own universe. Dorks, by comparison, are the least social group among the three for the reason that they are rejected by society, or otherwise they wouldn’t be stigmatized as dorks in the first place. They have to go through pain and anxiety in order to reach out for even a single social contact.
Geeks and nerds are different in the form of expression of their ideas. Geeks tend to mention lots of references and obscure facts in the course of conversations, those they obtained during their geeky researches. Think director Quentin Tarantino throwing out tons of information while talking about a particular movie. Geeks’ speech is also characterized by an extensive use of slang and abbreviations. Think computer science-obsessed guy who would abbreviate everything possible in order to get to the next fact faster and also be faithful to the special geek lingo.
Nerds, on the other hand, tend to use correct, but long-winded formulas and academic descriptions of concepts even in the course of a “normal” conversation. They do not care if a person they are talking to has enough understanding of the subject; it is sufficient for nerds that they have it.
Geeks are more open to discussing things with opponents if they disagree. They do not mind going to great lengths in explaining what they mean. A nerd, on the other hand, will typically shun an opponent if he does not provide a counter-argument to what the nerd thinks.
Regarding conversational features, dorks cannot be compared to the other two groups because they are generally not talkative at all and have diminished conversational skills due to a lack of practice.
Geeks are interested in “micro” details of daily life. The world around them is a set of curious little features they tend to collect without indulging in theories about these things. One may say that geeks’ interests are scattered to a degree. They can easily swap their chosen focus of interest to another one. Nerds, on the other hand, tend to see things on a “macro” level, always using minor details to prove their schemes of things and pursuing far-fetched universal and fundamental arguments. Nerds rarely change focus of interest in the course of their lives. If they became interested in black holes in childhood, they will maintain this interest as adults.
Dorks, on the other hand, do not know what to do about any facts, but have a personal set of odd interests they can escape to. They usually need a strong stimulus to draw their interest from their dorky routines to something else.
As far as an occupation is concerned, geeks often work as software engineers and IT-people in general. The term “geek” can be seen as synonymous with the term “programmer,” as this occupation requires all the qualities and traits geeks are generally characterized by. Geeks are found in the game industry, and in the design and fashion industries. Nerds, on the other hand, often occupy positions in research institutes, laboratories, and think tanks. Dorks, despite being social misfits, do not necessarily fail in their careers. Like geeks, they often work in the IT industry, as this work doesn’t require much social contact. Other places dorks feel comfortable to work at include libraries, museums, et al.
All three groups have traits that are comparable with those that are typical of personality disorders. Geeks show traits similar to those suffering from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and video game addiction. Nerds, on the other hand, come close to being obsessive-compulsive, narcissistic, sociopathic, and/ or schizopathic people. Dorks often bear traits of Asperger’s syndrome, and also sometimes of borderline disorder, social anxiety disorder, and maladaptive daydreaming.